In the Islamic Republic of Iran, based on the constitution, the city and village councils are the main custodians of government decentralization. However, this has been a controversial subject beyond the typical reformist/principlist argument in Iranian politics.
Despite the fact that the constitution defines elected councils as the decision making and administrative organs of the country, the first official order authorizing the local elections was only issued in 1998, after President Khatamis election.
When the first reform government ratified the 1998 decree, elected city or village councils were created in all of the country with the purpose of governing municipalities.
Since then, local councilors have been elected every four years via direct elections.