The use of concrete dates back thousands of years. The Egyptians used a form of crude concrete to make some of their pyramids; the ancient romans used it to make structures like the pantheon.
In Iran, the cement industry is one of the oldest, dating back hundreds of years. The countrys rich resources of limestone, clay, and silica have resulted in the massive development of this industry over the years. There are different formulas for making concrete. The basic ingredients are cement, silica sand, water and lime, along with some sort of aggregates like fine gravel.
Last year, Iran was ranked as the worlds seventh largest producer of cement according to the United States Geological survey. According to the Ministry of Industry, Mining and Trade, Iran has a cement production capacity of around 88 million tonnes. Of this amount, some 65 million tonnes are domestically consumed.
Iran exported a total of nearly 8 million tonnes worth over $160 million of cement in the first seven months this year. Going off of data from the Ministry of Industries, Mining and Trade, this value is 10% less than previous years. The decline in exports is mainly attributed to changes in import practices in neighboring countries.
Also another reason for this years low exports is the pause of construction projects abroad due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Some export destinations include China, Russia, Kenya, countries in Central Asia, and nearly all regional neighbors.
The Ministry of Industries, Mining and Trade reported that exports of construction materials reached about $7 billion last year. It said production of major items in the construction industry is more than double the domestic demand. Iran fully supplies steel, cement, glass, and concrete items, making it self-sufficient in the domestic construction industry.